Wine aromas are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary clusters, where each group originates from a different stage of the vine growing and winemaking process.
Every single grape variety has its individual recognisable flavour characteristics. Primary aromas derive from the grape variety and terroir, they are characterized by fresh fruit, flowers, plants, and herbs. Secondary aromas derive from post-fermentation processes. They do not appear at all in Madeira wines. Tertiary aromas (bouquet) derive from ageing. In Madeira wine, tertiary aromas are present and outspoken, as Madeira undergoes oxidative ageing on old wood, via slow heating, and bottle ageing.